In python numeric data types store numeric values. Number objects are created when a value is assigned to them.

Ex:

num1 = 5 num2 = 10

Four different numerical types are supported in python:

- int (signed integers)
- long (long integers, they can also be represented in octal and hexadecimal)
- float (decimal/real values)
- complex (complex numbers)

###### Mathematical Functions

Python includes following functions for numbers:

Function | Description |
---|---|

abs(x) | It returns the absolute value of x |

math.ceil(x) | It returns the ceiling of x: nearest larger integer. Ex: math.ceil(3.1) = 4 |

cmp(x, y) | It returns 1 if x > y, 0 if x == y, or -1 if x < y |

exp(x) | It returns e^{x}. In python 3 you have to use math.exp(1) |

fabs(x) | It returns the absolute value of x in float |

math.floor(x) | The floor of x: nearest smaller integer. Ex: math.floor(x) |

math.log(x) | It returns the natural logarithm of x, where x> 0. You can define the base as math.log(x,base) |

math.log10(x) | It returns the logarithm base-10 of x, where x> 0 |

max(x1, x2,…) | It returns the largest among passed arguments |

min(x1, x2,…) | It returns the smallest of among passed arguments |

math.modf(x) | It returns two tuple value consisting of (fractional, integer parts of x) and both parts have the same sign as x. The integer part is returned as a float. |

pow(x, y) | It returns x**y. |

round(x, n) | It returns rounded value of x, to n digits from the decimal point. Python rounds to greater integer for a tie-breaker: round(0.5) is 1.0 and round(-0.5) is -1.0. |

math.sqrt(x) | It returns the square root of x, where x > 0 |

###### Random Number Functions

Python includes following functions that are widely used. You have to import random library to use these functions.

Function | Description |
---|---|

choice(seq) | It returns a randomly selected item from the passed argument, that could be:sequence, tuple, or string, |

random.randrange (start, last, step) | It returns a randomly selected value between start and stop, with step value as step. Ex: random.randrange(2,10,1), returns a random value from 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 |

random.random() | It returns a random float vaule x, such that 0 ≤ x < 1 |

random.seed(x) | In python random numbers are generated by performing some operation on a number and usually this number is a previously generated random number. So for the 1^{st} time x is used to generate the random number. If you provide the same value of x, the same random numbers will be generated. Best is to use current time as x in seed. |

random.shuffle(list) | It randomizes the items of a list in place. Returns None. Ex:x=[1,2,3,4],random.shuffle(x),x= [2, 1, 3, 4] |

uniform(x, y) | It returns a random float value f, such that x ≤ f &t; y |

###### Trigonometric Functions

In python trigonometric functions are avaiabe in math ibrary.

math.acos(x), math.asin(x), math.atan(x), math.atan2(y, x), math.cos(x), math.hypot(x, y), math.sin(x), math.tan(x), math.degrees(x), math.radians(x).

###### Mathematical Constants

In python ** pi** and

**are the two mathematical constants. They can be used as**

*e***and**

*math.pi***.**

*math.e*
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