- What is asymmetric clustering?
- What is a thread?
- Give some benefits of multithreaded programming.
Ans:In asymmetric clustering, a machine is in a state known as hot standby mode where it does nothing but to monitor the active server. That machine takes the active server’s role if, the server fails.
Ans:A thread is a basic unit of CPU utilization. In general, a thread is composed of a thread ID,
program counter, register set and the stack.
- There is an increased responsiveness to the user
- Resource sharing within the process
- Utilization of multiprocessing architecture
Ans:RR (round-robin) scheduling algorithm is primarily aimed for time-sharing systems. A circular
queue is setup in such a way that the CPU scheduler goes around that queue, allocating CPU to each process for a time interval of up to around 10 to 100 milliseconds.
Ans:Deadlock situations occur when four conditions occur simultaneously in a system: Mutual
exclusion; Hold and Wait; No preemption; and Circular wait.
Ans:RAID 0 – Non-redundant stripingRAID 1 – Mirrored DisksRAID 2 – Memory-style error-correcting codes RAID 3 – Bit-interleaved ParityRAID 4 – Block-interleaved ParityRAID 5 – Block-interleaved distributed ParityRAID 6 – P+Q Redundancy
Ans:Banker’s algorithm is one form of deadlock-avoidance in a system. It gets its name from a
banking system wherein the bank never allocates available cash in such a way that it can no longer satisfy the needs of all of its customers.
What factors determine whether a detection-algorithm must be utilized in a deadlock avoidance system?
Ans:One is that it depends on how often a deadlock is likely to occur under the implementation of
this algorithm. The other has to do with how many processes will be affected by deadlock when this algorithm is applied.
Ans:Logical address refers to the address that is generated by the CPU. On the other hand, physical
address refers to the address that is seen by the memory unit.
Ans:With dynamic loading, a routine is not loaded until it is called. This method is especially useful when large amounts of code are needed in order to handle infrequently occurring cases such as
Ans:Overlays are used to enable a process to be larger than the amount of memory allocated to it.
The basic idea of this is that only instructions and data that are needed at any given time are kept in memory.
Ans:Paging is a memory management scheme that permits the physical-address space of a process
to be noncontiguous. It avoids the considerable problem of having to fit varied sized memory chunks onto the backing store.
Ans:Fragmentation is memory wasted. It can be internal if we are dealing with systems that have
fixed-sized allocation units, or external if we are dealing with systems that have variable-sized allocation units.